Working status of vulture conservation

Vultures  » Working status of vulture conservation

The Indian vulture (Gyps indicus) is an Old World vulture and is closely related to the griffon vultureG. fulvus. It breeds mainly on hilly crags in central and peninsular India. The birds in the northern part of its range once considered a subspecies are now considered a separate species, the slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris. These were lumped together under the name long-billed vultureThe Indian vulture and the white-rumped vulture, G. bengalensis species have suffered a 99%–97% population decrease in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. Between 2000-2007 annual decline rates of this species and the slender-billed vulture averaged over sixteen percent.The cause of this has been identified as poisoning caused by the veterinary drug diclofenac. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and when given to working animals it can reduce joint pain and so keep them working for longer. The drug is believed to be swallowed by vultures with the flesh of dead cattle who were given diclofenac in the last days of life.

Diclofenac causes kidney failure in several species of vultures. In March 2006 the Indian Government announced its support for a ban on the veterinary use of diclofenac. Another NSAID,meloxicam, has been found to be harmless to vultures and should prove to be an acceptable substitute for diclofenac. When meloxicam production is increased it is hoped that it will be as cheap as diclofenac. As of August 2011 the ban for veterinary use for approximately a year did not prevent diclofenac use across India. Small numbers of birds have bred across peninsular India, in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. All three of south Asia’s Gyps vulture species are Critically Endangered.  Vultures play a vital role in the ecosystem, cleaning the environment of rotting carcasses. A group of vultures can strip and animal carcass to the bone in less than half an hour – nature’s very own waste disposal mechanism. Since the early 1990s, populations of the Oriental White-backed, Long-billed and Slender-billed Vultures, have declined by 97%. in the case of the Oriental White-backed Vulture, once thought to be the most common large bird of prey in the world, the population decline reached an alarming 99.9% in the last 20 years. These declines have been quicker than that of any other wild bird, including the Dodo, and all three species face the imminent threat of extinction. The declines are the result of accidental poisoning by the drug diclofenac, widely used across south Asia to treat livestock, but causing death in vultures that feed on the carcasses of treated animals. 

Collaboration for vulture protectionin Bikaner division (Bikaner, Churu, Shri Ganganager, Hanumangharh, Nagor, Sikar, Jhujhunu)  

Importance of Alternative feeding managemen the vulture migration is also the very big problem for monitoring and conservation aspects. South Asia is very important are a for vulture migration, so alternative feeding management is necessary for rest Gyps vulture’s and their conservation. In year 1999 to 2009,lot of Rs utilized for vulture conservation by Government and NGO’s body, but in last 10 year no big changes for vulture population and their relevant area.

Many scientists suggest for decline of vulture population to change climatic and behavioral mode including roosting and feeding site. But really food changing is the major factor for decline, So Alternative feeding management system is very helpful for regarding conservation. Many theories given by research paper but in ground level this is the not possible and it’s very costly. So presenting this particular mode offeeding management is helpful for protection.

Treats of feeding managements

Vultures have performed important ecological, traditional and aesthetic functions throughout the Indian subcontinent. In Vulture conservation program Indian government make up very sensitive and important issue but in ground level they were worked not properly as If Veterinary Diclofenac Ban by Government they people were used unspecified brand or Human Diclofenac (Generic) for animal treatment. In many places poisonsuse for dead animal protection from vultures or carnivorous birds species but they poison work against for environment. In Present time government made many protocol for vulture conservation specially policy to recover the particular 3 endangered species but although mean time Indian Griffon is also reduced in number. If don’t take any action by government or NGO’s they show same scenario as OWBV’s position, soneeded to change protocol for migratory vultures program from all working agencies. Historically, many factors have been responsible for local vulture declines particularly poisoning and persecution. The declines in India result from elevated adult and juvenile mortality,and low breeding success. The widespread and rapid pattern of declines,i.e. in all areas irrespective of habitat or protection status suggest that persecution through shooting or poisoning, whilst important at a local scale, are unlikely to have caused the declines. The epidemiology of the declines is best explained by the introduction and widespread use (i.e. nationwide) of a contaminant, or an infectious disease. 

Available safe meat for vultures (activities to save the vulture in the Bikaner)

For the safe meat (diclofenac and other poison’s free animal)for vulture feeding as alternative method for migratory species. They prefer which animals from the areas where dairy farmers usually avoid diclofenac their large cattle and utilize Meloxicam or other pain killer of treatment.